susan sontag against interpretation

0000007687 00000 n b���e�n9�I�,�z�v�9�.I �de� �v1�U��-Pׯ�렕��Q��B8S& Aristotle disputed this idea and interpreted that art is “medicinally useful in arousing and purging dangerous emotions” (catharsis). 0000006848 00000 n She discusses and mixes the ideas of other writers and further differentiates two kinds of interpretation – form based interpretation and content based interpretation. on Susan Sontag’s Essay “Against Interpretation”, Dr Vinay Lal’s Concepts of the Indian Diaspora. 0000000967 00000 n In the same way, Samuel Beckett is read as an absurd world of man’s alienation from meaning or from God and from the psychological point of view looked on as an allegory of psycho-pathology. Susan Sontag, in “Against Interpretation,” takes a very interesting critical standpoint on the idea of literary interpretation. 0000001060 00000 n She strongly believes that in trying to establish the content of a work the interpreter avoids the form of the work. Your email address will not be published. She is also the author of four novels, a collection of stories and several plays. That is, in the classical period of interpretation, the old is not discarded but only revamped. This is because it has been believed that literature or any work of art has two major functions; – ‘to teach’ and ‘to delight’ in trying to assimilate art into thought or art into culture. Sontag's best-known work is On Photography (1977), a collection of essays dealing with the history of visual culture as well as its impact on both art and the national psyche. 0000006012 00000 n As the only woman among the 1960s world of New York Jewish intellectuals, Sontag was both venerated and villainized, depicted as either a counter-cultural hero or a posturing pop celebrity. “If I had to choose between the Doors and Dostoyevsky, then — of course — I’d choose Dostoyevsky,” Susan Sontag (January 16, 1933–December 28, 2004) wrote in the preface to the 30th-anniversary edition of her cultural classic Against Interpretation, then mischievously asked, “But do I have to choose? Originally published in 1966, it has never gone out of print and has influenced generations of readers all over the world. Her non-fiction works include A gainst Interpretation, On Photography, Illness as Metaphor, AIDS and its Metaphors and Regarding the Pain of Others. Sontag’s criticism was marked by a formalist aversion to content. 0000009345 00000 n If a reader learns to remove the content from focus, one will begin to see things as they are and as they should be. The question as I would like to reposition it is, “is Sontag categorically against interpretation?” I would answer that Sontag is not against interpretation per se, but rules of interpretation; she is against the practise of using an interpretative grid over and over to “decode” disparate works of art. Susan Sontag was born in Manhattan in 1933 and studied at the universities of Chicago, Harvard and Oxford. Against Interpretation was Susan Sontag's first collection of essays and is a modern classic. It is a line that Susan Sontag quotes toward the ... by Against Interpretation (1966 ... the problem is one of interpretation. Rather than recognizing great creative works as possible … On the contrary, modern interpreters discarded established truths in order to recreate their own. “Notes on Camp”, an essay was first published in 1964, and was republished in 1966 in her collection of essays, Against Interpretation. By three armies of interpreters one citing is writing as a social allegory, the other as psychoanalytic allegory and the third as a religious allegory. The theory of interpretation both makes and mars context as she believes that the task of interpretation is virtually one of translating through transforming. “Against Interpretation” in Against Interpretation and other Essays. Susan Sontag addresses this in her essay Against Interpretation, which was published in 1966 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 21 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 23 /H [ 1060 301 ] /L 105399 /E 57788 /N 5 /T 104861 >> endobj xref 21 31 0000000016 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� As a critic (and fiction writer) herself, Sontag had some definite ideas about what criticism should and should not do. Against Interpretation is an essay written by American critic Susan Sontag. Download with Google Download with Facebook Susan Sontag’s Against Interpretation is an extremely thought-provoking piece because it criticizes some of the most fundamental principles we are taught to practice at a young age when attempting to understand art and literature: the work of interpretation. She closes with a very debatable punchline saying “in place of a hermeneutics we need and erotics of art”. The title “against” does not mean that Sontag is against interpretation, rather it questions those that are against and tries to defend interpretation. Your email address will not be published. In the latter, Sontag argues that in the new approach to aesthetics the spiritual importance of art is being replaced by the emphasis on the intellect.… So there has been two phases in understanding art – the innocent acceptance of art (needed no defence or support outside itself) and secondly, the experienced justification of what it says or attempts to say. She also asks for “a vocabulary of forms” that is like descriptive rather than prescriptive. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Sontag spelled out this critical program in her 1964 essay, “Against Interpretation,” which now appears in the Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism in its most recent third edition—the sure sign of her domestication by American humanities. In a 1968 essay in Commentary, Irving Howe saw her as the “publicist” for a young generation of critics that was making its presence felt “like a spreading blot of anti-intellectualism.” Focusing on the woman rather than the work, other critics dubbed her “… Susan Sontag. 0000003230 00000 n The earliest theory of art, that of the Greek philosophers, proposed that art was mimesis, imitation of reality. Susan Sontag addresses this in her essay Against Interpretation, which was published in 1966 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. H�b```f``Qa`e`�� �� ,@Q�@��,�Y�r�30L�s ,�Ȗ��Y�K7^��D`q�9�K=Mf?W?������� D��[email protected]��ţ�a�20Z{ii ���2�3�1��P.�\`��������A�CVc/�q'00Ɗ0�� f�� yeK�Ō��4{ d�- endstream endobj 51 0 obj 188 endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 18 0 R /Resources 24 0 R /Contents [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Rotate 90 /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 26 0 R /TT4 25 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 47 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 29 0 R >> >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 233 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 611 667 778 0 556 722 0 333 333 0 556 944 778 778 611 0 667 556 611 0 722 944 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 463 407 500 389 278 500 500 278 278 444 278 778 556 444 500 0 389 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 389 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /POEEFI+BookAntiqua-Italic /FontDescriptor 28 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 151 /Widths [ 250 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 389 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 250 250 0 0 0 444 0 778 611 709 774 611 556 763 832 337 333 726 611 946 831 786 604 0 668 525 613 0 722 1000 667 667 667 333 0 333 0 0 0 500 553 444 611 479 333 556 582 291 234 556 291 883 582 546 601 560 395 424 326 603 565 834 516 556 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 500 500 0 0 1000 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /POEEBH+BookAntiqua /FontDescriptor 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 923 /CapHeight 687 /Descent -282 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -136 -311 1154 1036 ] /FontName /POEEBH+BookAntiqua /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 92 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 46 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 923 /CapHeight 687 /Descent -282 /Flags 98 /FontBBox [ -173 -307 1060 1041 ] /FontName /POEEFI+BookAntiqua-Italic /ItalicAngle -15 /StemV 75.85001 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 48 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj [ /ICCBased 49 0 R ] endobj 30 0 obj 703 endobj 31 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 30 0 R >> stream V)�D��A�94lڀ������4�XA�$� X�8�YI�Q/`�N�N�i>�L�5����g����EU�˫xᠷ��Y��5�L��C`�H�4����͇����l�A��[�i��:�p������.�ւ@.R�/OB�$o���n�����>�N�`�X*Ȭ��Æ���Pb9'U﬇��k�x�8. Against Interpretation was Susan Sontag's first collection of essays and is a modern classic. 0000054959 00000 n The only difference is in classical theory interpretation, only alter in order to reconcile meaning where insistent but respectful in their opinions and give one more meaning to the existing meaning without rejecting the original. 0000010040 00000 n Until the advent of New Criticism, the study of ‘form’ was never given a serious thought or exercised diligently. Nothing was rejected in classical interpretation. Find books Susan Sontag in her essay “Against Interpretation” focuses on what an interpretation really is. 0000004333 00000 n Therefore art was neither useful nor true. In this case art began needing support from outside to appreciate it. (Cf. Here, Aristotle does not reject Plato but only adds more meaning to substantiate and defend the value of both the poet and his heart. As the name suggests, the essay is all about Susan’s idea of what interpretation is, and why she’s against it. Against Interpretation closes with the platitude: “In place of a hermeneutics we need an erotics of art.” (Sontag, p.14) This is one of Sontag’s statements that promises more than it delivers. Answering the question, what kind of criticism or commentary on the arts is disabled today, Sontag begins saying that works of art are ineffable and cannot be described or paraphrased. 0000004312 00000 n Plato speaks of the value of art being dubious, since the poet-creator is “twice removed from reality”. B�_��t�Ͱ�"V�crw7���u���o^PF�'��������T~��!���y:��Ŗ�X��ܜN?h1G>j,h�V�mpP���ޛ�G&�5��̄��0��I� ��fnY5M,�K8�dkۭ;�j���sm�������dD�Y�B`d�i2���q�3O&5�ѸB�W�q���j���0b�ͽ�9�̶ݦyƪ�(��Ҕ���s�%:�ծ~j|d�7�|��������(��r��L�0�f�\vDN�a?L�.������9_1�D̴:���D�����t2첖�5'P�q�J~|�0kAO\X^�*��4Ub/��w��\.��u=L�� �H�86��M��:�5S���>�d���� �6O� endstream endobj 32 0 obj 707 endobj 33 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 32 0 R >> stream Summary Sections 1–3. Like Nietzsche, Sontag thinks we're too analytical, too divorced from our instincts, and a direct encounter with art is essential to enliven us. 0000003471 00000 n It is included in her 1966 collection Against Interpretation and Other Essays. In the last, Sontag argues that in the new approach to aesthetics the spiritual importance of art is being replaced by the emphasis on the intellect. Susan Sontag. ���{�N��/'��@S�NRM3 B0L�H�rK An interpreter exercises all the sensory experiences to set up a “shadow world of meanings” and “turn the world into this world”. What is needed according to her is to refine our senses “to see, more to hear more and to feel more”. Against Interpretation Susan Sontag The earliest experience of art must have been that it was incantatory, magical; art was an instrument of ritual. Thirdly she finds equally valuable those criticisms which are accurate, sharp and feels the form of a work of an art. She believes that it was the classical period which gave importance to ‘content’ of a work other than meaning and other things. Susan Sontag Against Interpretation 1964 莉 舒 2 mimetic theory need not close their eyes to decorative and abstract art. Irrespective of the conceptions on the theories of art, whether art is a picture of social reality or of language, the content of it is what all finally look to (that something it says or it is trying to say or it has said). 0000005118 00000 n In "Against Interpretation" Susan Sontag takes a stand against the ancient trend of "interpretation." H�t��n�0��~�9R��p�tL� p�[email protected],���šm��d�J�F/}�IyKRib�f>�K9�(K���AAUi�2���r*���ŕ30sx�n֎.n��ʙ�lG���)G'�Cy=aspMy^��k�MRFcy�BE����\um��� As the name suggests, the essay is all about Susan’s idea of what interpretation is, and why she’s against it. On the other hand, Sontag believes interpretation must be self-evaluated, with the historical view of human consciousness. Against Interpretation is a collection of essays by Susan Sontag published in 1966. In 1966 her first essay collection Against Interpretation was released to wide critical acclaim. the paintings in the caves at Lascaux, Altamira, Niaux, La Pasiega, etc.) Susan Sontag’s “Against Interpretation” Susan Sontag is an American Critic who rejected New Criticism. In conclusion Sontag advocates against looking at an interpreting art didactically or as a delight. 0000006033 00000 n 0000003531 00000 n The chief commodity of Susan Sontag's "Against Interpretation," according to its own author and her reviewers, is a modern sensibility. She discusses and mixes the ideas of other writers and further differentiates two kinds of interpretation – form based interpretation and content based interpretation. 0000002416 00000 n Originally published in 1966, it has never gone out of print and has influenced generations of … When done indiscriminately the films in question begin to look alike, and the process reveals more about the critic … (Cf. 0000003510 00000 n 0000001569 00000 n Interpretation has dominated art and literary criticism for hundreds of years and has been accelerated by Marxist ideology and Freudian psychology. On the other hand, modern theorists were radical, aggressive and dismissive in their act of interpretation. 0000001716 00000 n Susan Sontag is an avante-guarde writer (who discards conventions) who belongs to the American school of criticism. Originally published in 1966, it has never gone out of print and has influenced generations of readers all over the world. the paintings in the caves at Lascaux, Altamira, Niaux, La Pasiega, etc.) Sontag immediately addresses this, clarifying her use of the term at the start of section 3: Of course, … Unlike most literary critics, Sontag believes that literary criticism is growing increasingly destructive towards the very works of art that they, supposedly, so … Her best-known works include the critical works Against Interpretation (1966), Styles of Radical Will (1968), On Photography (1977), and Illness as Metaphor (1978), as well as the fictional works The Way We Live Now (1986), The Volcano Lover (1992), and In America (1999). These modern theorists acting as interpreters question the truth and started excavating in order to create new meanings by “digging behind the text”.

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