woodland period north america

However, it is now clear, that the beginnings of these developments lie deeper in the past by a thousand years or more. In fact, it appears that hunting and gathering continued as the basic subsistence economy and that subsistence horticulture/agriculture did not occur in much of the Southeast for a couple of thousand years after the introduction of pottery, and in parts of the Northeast, horticulture was never practiced. Clay for pottery was typically tempered (mixed with non-clay additives) with grit (crushed rock) or limestone. By the beginning of the Woodland period, climatic conditions had reached an approximation of the modern-day climate. Due to the similarity of earthworks and burial goods, researchers assume a common body of religious practice and cultural interaction existed throughout the entire region (referred to as the "Hopewellian Interaction Sphere"). The Woodland period is divided into Early (3,000 to 2,200 years ago), Middle (2,200 to 1,800 years ago) and Late (1,800 to 1,250 years ago) sub-periods. The Late Woodland period began about AD 500 and lasted about 500 years, until AD 1000. Ritchie, W. A. Pottery, agriculture, and permanent settlements have often been thought of the three defining characteristics of the Woodland period. National Park Service Populations increased and settlements filled up the landscape, spreading northward up small streams. Native Americans – First Owners of America, Encyclopedia of Alabama During this time, people widely adopted horticulture, pottery-making, the bow and arrow, and complex ceremonies surrounding death and burial. The bow and arrow made hunting less of a communal activity than it had been in the past, and individual families became more self-sufficient. Exclusive to cultures in Eastern North America, the woodland period refers to the large sites between the Archaic periods and the Mississippian cultures. Woodland period. "Hopewell, Middle Woodland, and the Laurel Culture: A Problem in Archaeological Classification". The Paleoindian Period refers to a time approximately 12,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age when humans first … "Recent Discoveries Suggesting an Early Woodland Burial Cult in the Northeast". The oldest mound associated with the Woodland period was the mortuary mound and pond complex at the Fort Center site in Glade County, Florida. Dalton Period – 8500-7900 BC. Middle Woodland people in central and western Iowa retained the pattern of small, temporary settlements that had developed during the Archaic period. The beginning of the Middle Woodland saw a shift of settlement to the Interior. The Hopewell culture first developed in what is now the Ohio Valley and other parts of the Midwest and gradually spread southward. Historic Occupation I. Our cookies are delicious. Various types of pottery were made including bowls, jars, and serving, storage. [1] The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. Recently evidence has accumulated a greater reliance on woodland peoples on cultivation in this period, at least in some localities, than has historically been recognized. (Last Privacy Policy Update July 2020), Byways & Historic Trails – Great Drives in America, Soldiers and Officers in American History, Alva Gould – Discoverer of the Famous Gould and Curry Mine, Honest Miner To a Poker-Playing Politician, Old Tom – A Typical Mining Camp Character, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Colorado. Some of these artifacts and materials were not local to the people such as copper from the Great Lakes area, mica from the southern Appalachians, and shells from the Gulf coast. But there were changes which definitely distinguish the Woodland era from the earlier period. This is especially true for the middle woodland period and perhaps beyond. Woodland collection in the Robbins Museum‎ (3 C) Media in category "Woodland period in North America" The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. In addition, the pace of cultural change began to quicken. Mississippian. [7] However, it has become evident that, in some areas of North America, prehistoric cultural groups with a clearly Archaic cultural assemblage were making pottery without any evidence of the cultivation of domesticated crops. The Woodland period, lasting from about 3,000 BC to 1000 AD, is an archaeological classification of Native American cultures of North America prior to European contact. The name we use comes from Mordecai Hopewell, a Chillicothe landowner on whose property mounds were excavated in the 1800s. Stage classification. United States Department of Agriculture If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. A third possibility is a colder climate may have affected food yields, possibly affected by Northern Hemisphere extreme weather events of 535–536, also limiting trade possibilities. The Late Woodland period began about AD 500 and lasted about 500 years, until AD 1000. Each contribution explores neighboring areas to llustrate the complexity of North … Most of these are evident in the Southeastern Woodlands by 1000 BCE. People tended to settle along rivers and lakes in both coastal and interior regions for maximum access to food resources. These included Archaic, and Woodland period, and Mississippian period … 106, no. This archaeological designation is often mistakenly conflated with the eco-cultural delineation of the continent’s eastern culture areas: the term Eastern Woodland cultures refers to the early … Considered a developmental period, it involved tools made of bones and stone, making of textiles, shelter such as tents, and leather. This type included a round body, and lines of decoration with cross-etching on rim. Required fields are marked *. Other items included projectile points, natural pigments like ocher, or a few special trade items. By this point, the people were tending gardens and gathering shellfish from the local rivers, which enabled them to live in one place for long periods of time without having to hunt for food as often. Examples include the Armstrong culture, Copena culture, Crab Orchard culture, Fourche Maline culture, the Goodall Focus, the Havana Hopewell culture, the Kansas City Hopewell, the Marksville culture, and the Swift Creek culture. At the same time, bow and arrow technology gradually overtook the use of the spear and atlatl, and agricultural production of the "Three Sisters" (maize, beans, and squash) was introduced. Many were decorated with stamped, punctuated, pinched, or brushed designs, and some were painted. Likely as a result of these regional gatherings, pottery from different places developed widespread similarities in form and decoration. The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-g… and cooking containers. The Far Northeast, the Sub-Arctic, and the Northwest/Plains regions widely adopted pottery somewhat later, about 200 BCE. The Middle Woodland period in eastern North America witnessed a florescence of monumental architecture and material exchange linked to widespread networks … In some areas, like South Carolina and coastal Georgia, Deptford culture pottery manufacture ceased after c. 700 CE. Middle Woodland people still hunted, fished, and gathered wild foods, but they also spent increasing amounts of time tending their plots of maize, squash, and other plants. Many aspects of daily life during this time were not much different from those of the preceding Archaic Period. Many of the groups of North America became agriculturalists, relying primarily on the Mesoamerican triad of corn, beans, and squash. The most cited technological distinction of this period was the widespread use of pottery (although pottery manufacture had arisen during the Archaic period in some places), and the diversification of pottery forms, decorations, and manufacturing practices. Woodland trade networks distributed exotic raw materials and finished ceremonial artifacts all across eastern North America. And, in some regions, pottery predates the onset of Woodland cultures by over 1000 years. The Early Woodland period began in the southern and midwestern part of North America about 1200 BC. Early Woodland Period 1,000 BCE to 1 CE This period was marked by the creation of extensive mound-building, burial complexes, the trade goods across a large area of North America. The people of this era lived in small bands of related families, who shared a base camp most of the year. Woodland Period by Dean Quigley, National Park Service. During Hernando de Soto's travels through the Southeastern Woodlands around 1543, the groups at the mouth of the Mississippi river still preferentially used the spear. The Old Copper Complex, also known as the Old Copper Culture, refers to the items made by early inhabitants of the Great Lakes region during a period that spans several thousand years and covers several thousand square miles. The Woodland period, lasting from about 3,000 BC to 1000 AD, is an archaeological classification of Native American cultures of North America prior to European contact. Pottery was most often decorated with a variety of linear or paddle stamps that created "dentate" (tooth-like) impressions, wavy line impressions, checked surfaces, or fabric-impressed surfaces, but some pots were incised with herringbone and other geometric patterns or, more rarely, with pictorial imagery such as faces. One of the most enduring classifications of archaeological periods and cultures was established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. Despite the apparent reduction of inter-regional exchange, the Late Woodland period was a time of important cultural changes, including the appearance of the bow and arrow in about around AD 700. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. As such, researchers are now redefining the period to begin with not only pottery, but the appearance of permanent settlements, elaborate burial practices, intensive collection and/or horticulture of starchy seed plants (see Eastern Agricultural Complex), differentiation in social organization, and specialized activities, among other factors. in … American Anthropologist 72(4):802–15. The Eastern Woodlands cultural region covers what is now eastern Canada south of the Subarctic region, the Eastern United States, along to the Gulf of Mexico.[2]. The reasons for this are unknown, but it has been theorized that populations increased so much that trade alone could no longer support the communities and some clans resorted to raiding others for resources. This was followed two thousand years later by North America's first sedentary town, at Poverty Point, Louisiana, unmatched in scale or integration even by most subsequent Woodland-period places (500 BC-AD 1050). Although many of the Middle Woodland cultures are called "Hopewellian", and groups shared ceremonial practices, archeologists have identified the development of distinctly separate cultures during the Middle Woodland period. "Prehistory of the Americas, 2nd Edition." During this time, populations increased and settlements filled up the landscape, spreading northward up small streams. Like the Archaic Period, each Woodland sub-period represents a slightly different way of life. Pottery first appears in Illinois during the Early Woodland. This period was also characterized by a lack of the non-local artifacts and materials that had been seen in the previous 500 years. Oxford University Press. 2000 B.C. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Lastly, it may be that agricultural technology became sophisticated enough that crop variation between clans lessened, thereby decreasing the need for trade. The Early Woodland period continued many trends begun during the Late and Terminal Archaic periods, including extensive mound-building, regional distinctive burial complexes, the trade of exotic goods across a large area of North America as part of interaction spheres, the reliance on both wild and domesticated plant foods, and a mobile subsistence strategy in which small groups took advantage of seasonally available resources such as nuts, fish, shellfish, and wild plants. In the classification of archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. Late Woodland Period – 500 to 1000 AD. [1] The term "Woodland Period… Coastal peoples practiced seasonal mobility, moving to the coast during the summer to take advantage of numerous marine resources such as sea mammals and shellfish, then moved to interior locations during the winter where access to deer, bear, and anadromous fish such as salmon could see them through the winter. (1955). "Patterns of Wild Plant Utilization in the Prehistoric Eastern Woodlands". A remarkable development of the Early Woodland was the widespread construction of earthen mounds. Seasonal foraging also characterized the strategies of many interior populations, with groups moving strategically among dense resource areas. However, this pottery was not widespread, and most pottery was made with clay, tempered with crushed rock or limestone. People continued to make stemmed points with broad blades, but they were slightly smaller. Mason, Ronald J. In Paul E. Minnis, People and Plants in Ancient Eastern North America, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bruce D. Smith and Richard A. Yarnell (2009). Woodland Period – 3,000 BC to 1000 AD. People continued to live in base camps, but their increased numbers led to competition for resources and an increase in warfare. 2012 excavations and dating by Thompson and Pluckhahn show that work began around 2600 BCE, seven centuries before the mound-builders in Ohio. As the Woodland period progressed, local and inter-regional trade of exotic materials greatly increased to the point where a trade network covered most of the Eastern Woodlands. Cambridge University Press. Archaeologists have defined several cultures within the Woodland Period. And these changes set the stage for the developments that would take place in the Mississippian period. One of the early periods was the Eastern Woodland period (800-200 BCE) which led to the mound emergence and when the Middle Woodland period (c. 200 BCE- AD 400) started, the mounds became more significant for ritual and spiritual meaning … Throughout the Southeast and north of the Ohio River, burial mounds of important people were very elaborate and contained a variety of mortuary gifts, many of which were not local. "Initial formation of an indigenous crop complex The Early Woodland lasted from about 3000 BC to 200 BC. In coastal regions, many settlements were near the coast, often near salt marshes, which were habitats rich in food resources. Some groups in the north and northeast of the current United States, such as the Iroquois, retained a way of life that was technologically identical to the Late Woodland until the arrival of Europeans. Late Woodland settlements became more numerous, but the size of each one (with exceptions) was smaller than their middle Woodland counterparts. Over most of this area these cultures were replaced by the Mississippian culture (q.v.) While full scale intensive agriculture did not begin until the following Mississippian period, the beginning of serious cultivation greatly supplemented the gathering of plants. Neusius, Sarah W. and G. Timothy Gross (2014). This era is considered a developmental stage that was characterized by increasing cultural complexity and population growth. In this unique volume, archaeologists examine the changing economic structure of trade in North America over a period of 6,000 years. Early Woodland Period (1000–1 BCE) The archaeological record suggests that humans in the Eastern Woodlands of North America were collecting plants from the wild by 6,000 BCE and gradually modifying them by selective collection and cultivation. Because they now grew food that could be stored, people developed large, rounded jars used for storage. Adena Culture – 1000 BC to 1 AD. The Hopewell culture flourished in Ohio and other parts of eastern North America during the Middle Woodland Period, possibly as early as 100 B.C. in eastern North America at 3800 B.P. Intensive cultivation of native food crops such as chenopodium, sunflowers, and gourds was widespread by 1000 BC. These have come to be known as the Hopewell tradition. Pots were usually made in a conoidal or conical jar with rounded shoulders, slightly constricted necks, and flaring rims. Between 1500 and 1000 BC, people began using sand to temper the clay and pottery-making became much more common and widely distributed. However, an increase of exotic artifacts at Middle Woodland sites indicates that there was more interaction between different regions than there had been during the Early Woodland. As the Hopewell culture declined, mortuary practices became more variable and simplified. The elaborate tombs are especially important because they indicate that the person buried there had a higher and/or special status. In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BC to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from AD 1000 to European contact as a separate period. Another result of people not moving around as much was that the various bands did not see each other and share ideas as often, so styles of making pottery and tools became very distinct from region to region. The decline in ceremonialism may indicate the development of a new form of religion that focused on a reverence for the ancestors of certain lineages. – A.D. 1000)", List of archaeological periods (North America), Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska, Dr. Susan LaFlesche Picotte Memorial Hospital, Pawnee Mission and Burnt Village Archeological Site, Little Maquoketa River Mounds State Preserve, University of Tennessee Agriculture Farm Mound, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Woodland_period&oldid=998230384, 10th-century disestablishments in North America, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 11:49. Woodland Period The Woodland period is a label used by archaeologists to designate pre-Columbian Native American occupations dating between roughly 600 BC and AD 1000 … People began making stone projectile points that were shorter, thinner, and more triangular so they could be attached to arrows. Clan heads would then be buried along with goods received from their trading partners to symbolize the relationships they had established. [13] The most archaeologically certifiable sites of burial during this time were in Illinois and Ohio. The stone tools of this period were similar to those made during the Archaic. Middle Woodland Period - The Hopewell Culture The Middle Woodland period, which lasted from roughly 100 B.C. Woodland. Historic Occupation II. Woodland Periods in North America. These were quite large and corner-notched. Archaic Advances . The Center for American Archeology specializes in Middle Woodland culture. The Middle Woodland period, lasting from about 200 BC to 600 AD, is marked by changes in settlement and subsistence patterns as populations increased and people began to spread into other areas to take advantage of diverse food resources. The earliest pottery included some that were made from plant fibers that were more typical of the Archaic period. The Havana style found in Illinois had a decorated neck. This culture is believed to have been core to the Meadowood Interaction Sphere, in which cultures in the Great Lakes region, the St. Lawrence region, the Far Northeast, and the Atlantic region interacted. The increasing use of horticulture and the development of the Eastern Agricultural Complex, consisting of weedy seed plants as well as gourd cultivation, also meant that groups became less mobile over time and, in some times and places, people lived in permanently occupied villages and cities. 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